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September 8, 2022

Essay preparation according to GOST-2022: requirements of universities and instructions for students

How to get the highest score and not be known as stuffy without time to rest, using the GOST abstract template

The academic year has started. And the number of questions from students on how to write an essay quickly and according to GOST is steadily increasing. In this article, we will take a look at the intricacies of the process in order.


  1. Preparatory work
  2. Abstract title page formatting + sample
  3. Formatting of the abstract content + sample
  4. Introduction in the abstract + sample
  5. Main part of the abstract + sample
  6. Checking the uniqueness of the essay and how to improve uniqueness
  7. Formatting of the reference list according to GOST 2022 + sample
  8. Conclusions

Preparatory work

Unlike the report, the abstract will not only present the collected information on the topic, but also formulate its own conclusions. The preparatory stage will help to sort everything out.
So, while only the topic is known, the teacher chose it.

Stages of preparation for the abstract:

  • Determine the keywords to search for information. At least in general terms you can guess what you have to write about. Google is there to help. Type into the search box the words related to the given topic.
  • Select Internet sources of scientific information
    1. Training materials
    2. Docsity
    3. Studmed
  • Compile everything you find in one document - this will speed up the writing of the abstract. You can edit it later.
  • Formulate the problem. When you analyzed the sources of information, you noticed controversial points in the topic, different points of view. This is called a problem, you need to define it clearly.
  • Produce a working hypothesis. Suggest how the identified problem could be solved in theory.
  • Define the purpose of the essay. Formulate the idea of solving the problem. The goal will be the result you plan to get in the end.
  • Define Objectives. The objectives are to test the working hypothesis while working with the sources.
  • Make an outline of the essay, decide on the scope:
    1. The title page and the table of contents are one page each. The title page is not numbered, but is included in the general numbering.
    2. Introduction - 2-3 pages. The introduction will include the main tasks and objectives of the work.
    3. The main part is usually 10-20 pages. It depends on the number of chapters and sections in the essay. Often teachers indicate the necessary volume.
    4. The conclusion is half a page. Short and to the point.
    5. List of references. How many pages to count on it is entirely up to you. In general, it rarely takes more than one page.

Formatting the title page of the abstract

A properly designed abstract according to GOST begins with a title page. The general rule for spacing on each page - 1.5. Margins: 1.5 cm - right and top, 2.5 cm - left, 3 cm - bottom. The text is printed only on one side of the page. There are no indications on the font and the size in the State Standard, but usually andStandard Times New Roman 14 or 16 point font is used.

How to design the cover page:

  • the header with the full name of the university and the department occupies the top center
  • "abstract" in capital letters in the middle, below - the topic of the work
  • skip 8-9 lines and write the author's name. Under them - full name of the supervisor, position held, scientific degree. This block of personal data is placed on the right side of the sheet. All the listed information from a new line, the first letters - exactly under each other
  • city and year are placed at the bottom of the sheet, strictly in the middle, strictly in this order

The title page, as we have already said, is not numbered.

Titulniy List

Sample abstract title page

Table of contents of the abstract

"Table of Contents" is written in capital letters, placed in the middle. The table of contents is intended to help the reader and yourself to navigate the essay. The structure should be clear and understandable. Left binding elements - the introduction, conclusion, references and titles of chapters. If the information in the abstract a lot, it is within the chapters to make detail - to break into subchapters and number them correctly. In front of each paragraph and sub-item write the page number.

The table of contents should be prepared at the end of the essay. By that time you will have already numbered it in Google Docs or Microsoft Word and will understand whether you need to highlight any other important information in separate paragraphs.

Soderjanie Referata

Sample contents of an abstract

Introduction in the abstract + sample

In the introduction is always prescribed goals and objectives of the work, and the rationale for the relevance of the topic. Yes, it is clear that the topic is usually assigned by the teacher, and rarely does this topic seem relevant to you. However, here you should try to explain why it is now necessary to investigate this topic without fail. Describe briefly the problem that you have discovered during the information gathering process.

Sometimes teachers require that the object and subject of the study be described in the introduction.

Formatting the introduction:

  • the introduction page is numbered (usually number 3)
  • The title "Introduction" can be written in capital letters, if you wish. Place in the center
  • The text of the introduction is written as the text of the paragraphs - 14 font Times New Roman with single line spacing

Sample introduction to an abstract

Main part of the abstract + sample

Remember, in the preparatory stage, when you googled material on the topic of the essay, you identified a problem - something to argue about. So now is the time. The whole main part of your essay will be devoted to this. Write out the problem in detail - try to start with a brief historical outline.

Next - work with a hypothesis. As a reminder, a hypothesis is an assumption, a statement that needs to be proved. A hypothesis can be based on scientific methods and is then called scientific. If the hypothesis is confirmed by an experiment, it becomes a theory.

Abstracts put forward a theoretical hypothesis. It is based on the generalization of previously known theories and facts on the topic. It cannot be tested experimentally in the format of work on the essay. So here the main role will be played by your logic.

As for the layout, it is important not to write all your thoughts in one pile, but to structure them. Let there be several chapters and even sub-chapters, if necessary.

Sample of the main body of the abstract

How to draw a conclusion in an abstract

The important thing here is to understand what the conclusion is for.

Conclusion of the abstract:

  • analyses and structures the content
  • highlights the main thing
  • answers the basic question
  • summarizes the theoretical and practical parts
  • creates a positive impression of the material

In the conclusion, state whether you have achieved the goal of your work. In the last paragraph of the conclusion, write a summary of the conclusion, such a bold point in the study.

There is no need to expand on the idea here - GOST says that the conclusion should occupy half a sheet.

Checking the uniqueness of the essay and how to improve uniqueness

Students are afraid of university anti-plagiarism. And this is understandable - for unoriginal work the score is reduced or even forced to rewrite. If you wrote the work yourself from beginning to end, then there is nothing to be afraid of. But if you still "borrowed" information from somewhere, it is worth anxious to improve the uniqueness.

Students are a tricky bunch. They used to insert the finished text into a translator and "run" it through several languages, then go back to Russian. It often turned out to be gibberish, but it was unique.

But we are figuring out how to write an abstract quickly, rather than torturing the translator and then correcting after him. That is why we suggest you to use the autorate text with uniqueness check from the service ReText.AI.

Everything is as simple as possible. Insert your (or "not quite your") version of the text in the left field, click the "Paraphrase" button, and after a couple of seconds you'll see the recycled text next to it. Clicking on the "Uniqueness" button, you will see the result - more than 80% is considered normal.

Retext Referat

In principle, any text can be rewritten using an automatic rewriting service. The only thing is to remember to tweak the result - after all, artificial intelligence worked here, and it's not perfect yet either.

Formatting of the reference list according to GOST 2022

In any sample abstract designed according to State Standard, you will see a list of references. This is an obligatory part.

The sources are arranged in alphabetical order. Each source is assigned a number (1, 2, 3 ...). These numbers can be used in references in the text of the abstract, in square brackets - for example, [7, p. 20] means that the quote belongs to the seventh source, from page 20.

Describe the sources according to bibliographic rules, keeping all punctuation marks. Read the image below carefully, it is a visual representation of the description of sources in different formats.

Spisok Literaturi

Sample list of references in the abstract


In this article, we have broken down how to write an abstract correctly and quickly. We reminded you how important it is to understand the topic given by the teacher and how it is easier to systematize the knowledge obtained in the course of work. Suspecting that students are a little bit lazy (this is probably not about you, yes), we suggested the best analogue of online synonymizers - stop using prehistoric methods, try auto-rewriting with the artificial intelligence ReText.AI. You will have to write more than a dozen abstracts during your student life, GOSTs will change, and we will continue to keep you informed.